U.N.T.S. No. 10485, vol. 729, pp. 169-175.
TREATY ON THE NON-PROLIFERATION OF NUCLEAR
ENTERED INTO FORCE: 5 March 1970
The States concluding this Treaty, hereinafter referred to as the "Parties
to the Treaty",
Considering the devastation that would be visited upon all mankind by a
nuclear war and the consequent need to make every effort to avert the danger of
such a war and to take measures to safeguard the security of peoples,
Believing that the proliferation of nuclear weapons would seriously enhance
the danger of nuclear war,
In conformity with resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly
calling for the conclusion of an agreement on the prevention of wider
dissemination of nuclear weapons,
Undertaking to co-operate in facilitating the application of International
Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on peaceful nuclear activities,
Expressing their support for research, development and other efforts to
further the application, within the framework of the International Atomic Energy
Agency safeguards system, of the principle of safeguarding effectively the flow
of source and special fissionable materials by use of instruments and other
techniques at certain strategic points,
Affirming the principle that the benefits of peaceful applications of
nuclear technology, including any technological by-products which may be derived
by nuclear-weapon States from the development of nuclear explosive devices,
should be available for peaceful purposes to all Parties to the Treaty, whether
nuclear-weapon or non-nuclear-weapon States,
Convinced that, in furtherance of this principle, all Parties to the Treaty
are entitled to participate in the fullest possible exchange of scientific
information for, and to contribute alone or in co-operation with other States
to, the further development of the applications of atomic energy for peaceful
Declaring their intention to achieve at the earliest possible date the
cessation of the nuclear arms race and to undertake effective measures in the
direction of nuclear disarmament,
Urging the co-operation of all States in the attainment of this objective,
Recalling the determination expressed by the Parties to the 1963 Treaty
banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water
in its Preamble to seek to achieve the discontinuance of all test explosions of
nuclear weapons for all time and to continue negotiations to this end,
Desiring to further the easing of international tension and the
strengthening of trust between States in order to facilitate the cessation of
the manufacture of nuclear weapons, the liquidation of all their existing
stockpiles, and the elimination from national arsenals of nuclear weapons and
the means of their delivery pursuant to a Treaty on general and complete
disarmament under strict and effective international control,
Recalling that, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, States
must refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force
against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in
any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations, and that
the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security are to be
promoted with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and
Have agreed as follows:
Each nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to transfer to
any recipient whatsoever nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or
control over such weapons or explosive devices directly, or indirectly; and not
in any way to assist, encourage, or induce any non-nuclear-weapon State to
manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive
devices, or control over such weapons or explosive devices.
Each non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to receive
the transfer from any transferor whatsoever of nuclear weapons or other nuclear
explosive devices or of control over such weapons or explosive devices directly,
or indirectly; not to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other
nuclear explosive devices; and not to seek or receive any assistance in the
manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.
- Each non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes to accept
safeguards, as set forth in an agreement to be negotiated and concluded with the
International Atomic Energy Agency in accordance with the Statute of the
International Atomic Energy Agency and the Agency's safeguards system, for the
exclusive purpose of verification of the fulfilment of its obligations assumed
under this Treaty with a view to preventing diversion of nuclear energy from
peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Procedures
for the safeguards required by this Article shall be followed with respect to
source or special fissionable material whether it is being produced, processed
or used in any principal nuclear facility or is outside any such facility. The
safeguards required by this Article shall be applied on all source or special
fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within the territory of
such State, under its jurisdiction, or carried out under its control anywhere.
- Each State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to provide: (a) source or
special fissionable material, or (b) equipment or material especially designed
or prepared for the processing, use or production of special fissionable
material, to any non-nuclear-weapon State for peaceful purposes, unless the
source or special fissionable material shall be subject to the safeguards
required by this Article.
- The safeguards required by this Article shall be implemented in a manner
designed to comply with Article IV of this Treaty, and to avoid hampering the
economic or technological development of the Parties or international
co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities, including the
international exchange of nuclear material and equipment for the processing, use
or production of nuclear material for peaceful purposes in accordance with the
provisions of this Article and the principle of safeguarding set forth in the
Preamble of the Treaty.
- Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty shall conclude agreements
with the International Atomic Energy Agency to meet the requirements of this
Article either individually or together with other States in accordance with the
Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Negotiation of such
agreements shall commence within 180 days from the original entry into force of
this Treaty. For States depositing their instruments of ratification or
accession after the 180-day period, negotiation of such agreements shall
commence not later than the date of such deposit. Such agreements shall enter
into force not later than eighteen months after the date of initiation of
- Nothing in this Treaty shall be interpreted as affecting the inalienable
right of all the Parties to the Treaty to develop research, production and use
of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination and in conformity
with Articles I and II of this Treaty.
- All the Parties to the Treaty undertake to facilitate, and have the right
to participate in, the fullest possible exchange of equipment, materials and
scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear
energy. Parties to the Treaty in a position to do so shall also co-operate in
contributing alone or together with other States or international organizations
to the further development of the applications of nuclear energy for peaceful
purposes, especially in the territories of non-nuclear-weapon States Party to
the Treaty, with due consideration for the needs of the developing areas of the
Each Party to the Treaty undertakes to take appropriate measures to ensure
that, in accordance with this Treaty, under appropriate international
observation and through appropriate international procedures, potential benefits
from any peaceful applications of nuclear explosions will be made available to
non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty on a non-discriminatory basis and
that the charge to such Parties for the explosive devices used will be as low as
possible and exclude any charge for research and development. Non-nuclear-weapon
States Party to the Treaty shall be able to obtain such benefits, pursuant to a
special international agreement or agreements, through an appropriate
international body with adequate representation of non-nuclear-weapon States.
Negotiations on this subject shall commence as soon as possible after the Treaty
enters into force. Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty so desiring may
also obtain such benefits pursuant to bilateral agreements.
Each of the Parties to the Treaty undertakes to pursue negotiations in good
faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an
early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete
disarmament under strict and effective international control.
Nothing in this Treaty affects the right of any group of States to conclude
regional treaties in order to assure the total absence of nuclear weapons in
their respective territories.
- Any Party to the Treaty may propose amendments to this Treaty. The text of
any proposed amendment shall be submitted to the Depositary Governments which
shall circulate it to all Parties to the Treaty. Thereupon, if requested to do
so by one-third or more of the Parties to the Treaty, the Depositary Governments
shall convene a conference, to which they shall invite all the Parties to the
Treaty, to consider such an amendment.
- Any amendment to this Treaty must be approved by a majority of the votes
of all the Parties to the Treaty, including the votes of all nuclear-weapon
States Party to the Treaty and all other Parties which, on the date the
amendment is circulated, are members of the Board of Governors of the
International Atomic Energy Agency. The amendment shall enter into force for
each Party that deposits its instrument of ratification of the amendment upon
the deposit of such instruments of ratification by a majority of all the
Parties, including the instruments of ratification of all nuclear-weapon States
Party to the Treaty and all other Parties which, on the date the amendment is
circulated, are members of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic
Energy Agency. Thereafter, it shall enter into force for any other Party upon
the deposit of its instrument of ratification of the amendment.
- Five years after the entry into force of this Treaty, a conference of
Parties to the Treaty shall be held in Geneva, Switzerland, in order to review
the operation of this Treaty with a view to assuring that the purposes of the
Preamble and the provisions of the Treaty are being realised. At intervals of
five years thereafter, a majority of the Parties to the Treaty may obtain, by
submitting a proposal to this effect to the Depositary Governments, the
convening of further conferences with the same objective of reviewing the
operation of the Treaty.
- This Treaty shall be open to all States for signature. Any State which
does not sign the Treaty before its entry into force in accordance with
paragraph 3 of this Article may accede to it at any time.
- This Treaty shall be subject to ratification by signatory States.
Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession shall be deposited with
the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America, which are
hereby designated the Depositary Governments.
- This Treaty shall enter into force after its ratification by the States,
the Governments of which are designated Depositaries of the Treaty, and forty
other States signatory to this Treaty and the deposit of their instruments of
ratification. For the purposes of this Treaty, a nuclear-weapon State is one
which has manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive
device prior to 1 January, 1967.
- For States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited
subsequent to the entry into force of this Treaty, it shall enter into force on
the date of the deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession.
- The Depositary Governments shall promptly inform all signatory and
acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each
instrument of ratification or of accession, the date of the entry into force of
this Treaty, and the date of receipt of any requests for convening a conference
or other notices.
- This Treaty shall be registered by the Depositary Governments pursuant to
Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
- Each Party shall in exercising its national sovereignty have the right to
withdraw from the Treaty if it decides that extraordinary events, related to the
subject matter of this Treaty, have jeopardized the supreme interests of its
country. It shall give notice of such withdrawal to all other Parties to the
Treaty and to the United Nations Security Council three months in advance. Such
notice shall include a statement of the extraordinary events it regards as
having jeopardized its supreme interests.
- Twenty-five years after the entry into force of the Treaty, a conference
shall be convened to decide whether the Treaty shall continue in force
indefinitely, or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or periods.
This decision shall be taken by a majority of the Parties to the Treaty.
This Treaty, the English, Russian, French, Spanish and Chinese texts of
which are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the
Depositary Governments. Duly certified copies of this Treaty shall be
transmitted by the Depositary Governments to the Governments of the signatory
and acceding States.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorised, have signed this
DONE in triplicate, at the cities of London, Moscow and Washington, the
first day of July, one thousand nine hundred and sixty-eight.